What do cows eat : Feeding cows Guide

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Feeding cows is one of the important things that make the difference between every farmer. It is the main factor that increases production, whether milk or meat production.

There are a group of nutrients that must be provided in the diet of cows, which are water, carbohydrates and fats, protein, minerals and vitamins.

Each of these elements has a role in increasing production and weight, which must be available in cows’ diet in a balanced manner to obtain the best results.

In this article we are going to talk about the nutrients that should be provided in the feed of cows 

The amount of feed that cows need

Cows use their food for two main reasons:

  • Preserving its life: This is called the preservative feed, and it is the amount of feed that is needed to save the animal’s life without increasing or decreasing its weight. The importance of life-saving feed is due to the fact that when the animals are fully grown and in periods of rest or lack of production, it only provides them with the amount of food that saves their life Only without increasing or decreasing its weight and the amount is calculated according to the weight of the animal.
  • Production: This is called the production feed, and it is the amount of fodder that is required for the production of various forms of milk production or meat production. The quantity is calculated according to the amount produced by the animal from the aforementioned types of production.

Types of feeds that cows need

Energy feed

They are the feeds that provide the cow with energy. They are characterized by their abundance, diversity and low prices compared to the rest of the forages. This type of needs (energy) can be taken from grains in particular, such as barley, corn, amber, and other types of grains.

Protein feed

They are the feed that provides the cow with the protein necessary for the formation of meat and milk. We need it at lower rates of energy, but it is often more expensive than the energy feed.

Among the most prominent feeds that provide cows with the necessary proteins, we find beans, alfalfa ,hay , soya beans…

Mineral salts and vitamins:

These mineral salts and vitamins are often found naturally in the composition of the feed, but with the long storage of feed and the use of modern methods of production, these elements began to decrease in the feed, which necessitated adding them in the form of CMV mineral and vitamin supplements.

It can be purchased from any animal feed store.


It is the most important element in life, as water is the only guarantee that nutrients can reach the cells through the blood, so the presence of water is always beside dairy cows from the important things that must be taken into consideration ..

Feeding cows on green fodder

Green fodder is no less important than other foodstuffs, as it is very important for the animal produced, especially the pregnant animal, because it contains vitamins and mineral salts, as green fodder is rich in vitamin (A) which is important for cows.

 Due to the lack of available quantities of green fodder and its price higher than the concentrated feed, the quantity provided for dairy cows is estimated at about 10-12 kilograms of green fodder / day, and dry pregnant cows about 15 kilograms of green fodder / day due to its importance for the fetus, especially the last 30 days of pregnancy.

And vitamin (A) is very important for lactating and pregnant cows because it passes into milk as needed by the fetus and the pain of a pregnant woman, which helps her ease the process of giving birth in a normal condition and get rid of the placenta naturally.

This vitamin is available in green fodder and since the amount of green fodder provided to cows is limited, it must be added to the diet or provide the animal with doses of it in successive periods, especially for the pregnant animal during the last period of pregnancy.

It has been observed that the lack of vitamin A in the diet of pregnant cows causes the birth of weak calves with cases of blindness in addition to an increase in the possibility of contracting lung and infectious influenza, which increases the mortality rate.